Allocation issues are very important to the selling/buying a business process. Andy Dobrov with Premier Business Opportunities in Los Altos California discusses allocation issues with my blog readers . . . .
"Allocating the purchase price is always required prior to close of escrow and often becomes a last minute fire drill with buyer and seller scrambling to figure the tax implications. Buyer and Seller usually consult their accountants and have the accountants work directly together to agree on how to split up the total purchase price amongst the different categories like “Taxable Fixtures & Equipment”, “Goodwill”, “Covenant not to Compete”, “Inventory”, “Value of Lease”, etc.
The most common question that comes up during allocation is how much should the buyer allocate towards taxable fixtures and equipment, because buyer pays sales tax on that amount into escrow prior to close. Many buyers need operating capital and want to minimize any tax paid up front, but the more tax they pay towards fixtures and equipment, the more of a tax write-off they get by Depreciating the value of fixtures and equipment over the next 5-years. Many buyers aren’t focused on depreciation and future tax write-offs when trying to close a deal because they are focused on immediate cash needs to run the business. These buyers look to minimize the value of taxable fixtures and equipment without going so low that it raises questions by the State Board of Equalization. The interesting thing is that there is no truly objective way to determine the current value of fixtures and equipment because the buyer is purchasing used fixtures and equipment that he or she could theoretically buy on the secondary market for pennies on the dollar. So the current value of the fixtures and equipment that seller uses for tax purposes only serves as a loose guideline to the buyer and is not a requirement by any means. However, that said, I am hearing from escrow companies that the State Board of Equalization will ask for supporting documentation and clarification from the buyer if they choose a value that is perceived as ridiculously low.
In my recent experience, I see clients and their accountants select a wide range of values for fixtures and equipment. Out of 22 Quiznos Franchises that I have sold, I have buyers allocate as much as $75,000 towards equipment and as little as $5,000 when the purchase price for each business was identical at $220,000. Of course, one Quiznos can be a lot older than the next and the equipment can vary quite a bit, but those differences do not account for this huge variation. The main factor that buyers use in valuing fixtures & equipment is how much they are willing to pay up front in sales tax in return for obtaining a 5-year tax write-off through depreciation. Some accountants advise their clients to place more value on the equipment because of the long-term tax benefit of depreciation, but the amount itself varies tremendously depending on the buyer. As a side note, the buyers in both cases allocated the balance of the purchase price towards Goodwill, which is about customers and cash-flow of the business.
That said, my understanding is that Sellers really are not impacted by the amount the buyer chooses to value the fixtures and equipment, and that the most significant category for the Seller is the value placed on “Covenant not to Compete”. This is the value placed on the fact that Seller agrees not to compete with the business he is selling, which typically covers a 10-mile radius over 5-years. The covenant not to compete is typically an escrow document and signed regardless of whether or not any money is allocated towards the non-compete agreement, so the buyer is theoretically protected in full whether they allocate money towards the covenant or not. However, my understanding from talking to several accountants is that any money allocated towards the covenant is taxed as regular income as opposed to capital gains. That means that the seller pays more tax when the buyer allocates money towards the covenant so sellers typically like to keep that category to a minimum."
Andy can be reached at 650-988-1820 if you are thinking of buying or selling a business in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Categories: Deal And Escrow Issues
|Helpful Resources To Assist In Selling And Buying California Businesses|
|Willard Michlin, CPA, Certified Fraud Examiner, Due Diligence Services
Willard Michlin, CPA #106752, offers buyers step by step training & assistance in doing Due Diligence Services when they are thinking of making an offer, or are in process of investigating a business purchase. He helps to determine the actual net profit even when there is cash. Call 805-428-2063.
|Mark Chatow, Esq.: Legal Services For Buying, Selling Businesses
Mark has a broad range of small business purchase & sale experience from analyzing potential acquisition targets to successfully guiding buyers and sellers through the purchase & sale of small businesses. Mark can assist with contracts, negotiations, legal matters, etc. Reach Mark at 949-478-8393.
|Helen Yoo: Escrow & Bulk Sale Services - Southern California
New Century Escrow, Inc. is a fully licensed & bonded independent escrow company. Over 20 years combined experience in handling bulk escrow transactions. Multi-lingual staff that speaks your language, including Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese. Call Helen Yoo direct at 626-890-1151.
|Brad Steinberg, Broker - Laundromat Specialists
PWS is the leading laundromat broker in California. Since 1968 PWS has brokered over 2,500 laundromat sales. With over 90 employees dedicated to the coin laundry industry, PWS has 18 licensed agents, a 3 person in-house finance department, 10 service technicians and a 20 person parts department.
|Janet Carrera - Escrow & Bulk Sale Services - SF Bay Area
Redwood Escrow Services, Inc. is a full service, licensed independent escrow company. We are EAFC Fidelity bonded, fully insured & licensed with the Department of Corporations. Committed to offering our clients the most comprehensive variety of escrow services available. Phone Janet at 510-247-0741.
|Elizabeth McGovern: Escrow Services - SF Bay Area
McGovern Escrow Services, Inc., is a leading independent escrow company. We are a trusted partner with our clients, assisting them through the tangled bulk sale & liquor license transfer process. We provide attentive, quality & innovative customer service. Phone Elizabeth McGovern at 415-735-3645.
|Diane Boudreau-Tschetter: Escrow And Bulk Sale Services
California Business Escrow, Inc. is a full service independent escrow company serving all of California and has expertise in a wide range of escrows. Our team prides itself on providing an exceptional escrow experience. For more info phone Diane Boudreau-Tschetter at 888-383-3331 or 209-838-1100.
|Ranvir S. Sandhu, Esq. - Legal Services For Buyers And Sellers
I've worked at top Bay Area law firms and have extensive experience with business entity formation, mergers, dissolutions, conversions, employment matters, including experience in reviewing and negotiating transactional documents such as leases and purchase agreements.
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