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Interpreting Reported Earnings From Sellers


Interpreting Reported EarningsIf it's true, as commonly believed, that small business owners tend to be creative individuals, one of the expressions of this talent can be found in the way they calculate the adjusted net income or earnings they receive from their businesses.

Seasoned California business brokers often have difficulty coming up with an accurate earnings figure when analyzing the records of a company going on the market. Their challenge is to determine how much a new owner is likely to earn, based on the current level of gross revenues and the expenses actually needed to generate that income.

If accurately calculating the "bottom line" is hard for someone skilled in this field, imagine the difficulties faced by a real estate licensee with a background in home sales, who is called on to list a small California business opportunity for sale. It's easy to understand how real estate professionals lacking experience in analyzing businesses records, can be misled by a seller into advertising an exaggerated earnings figure for a business offering.

But the agent or broker will soon get an education--the hard way--about the importance of determining and stating the correct figures. That education will begin when the broker goes back to the seller for more information, after a buyer--relying on initial profit statements--discovers in due diligence that there is no way to substantiate the profits claimed.

EBTIDA

The first thing for a new business broker to understand about an earnings statement is the calculation of Earnings Before Taxes, Interest, Depreciation and Amortization. The seller's books will probably show each of these T-I-D-A items as expenses, deducted from the gross profit figure along with other fixed costs, before conducting the final calculation of earnings.

An accepted accounting protocol is to assume that these TIDA expenses will vary, depending on the way each buyer wants to manage the financial side of his or her business. And because these "variable" expenses do not represent costs absolutely necessary to conduct business, the common practice is to add the TIDA expenses to the "bottom line" figure to arrive at the seller's earnings. And this figure should be properly explained as EBTIDA.

ONE-TIME EXPENSES

The cost of a legal settlement with a disgruntled former employee or with an unhappy customer who has some kind of claim, is an example of a non-recurring, or one-time expense. So is the cost of an expensive capital equipment item that was purchased from the business's ready cash in a single year. As these expenses are not going to be incurred by the new owner, it is fair, when analyzing the seller's Profit and Loss Statement, to add the amount of these non-recurring costs to the bottom line.

The buyer may have other one-time costs once the business has changed hands, and will treat them however he or she sees fit for bookkeeping purposes. But any non-recurring costs listed by the seller can legitimately be considered as if the dollar values associated with them are part of the seller's earnings.

PERSONAL EXPENSES

It is common for the owner to have his company pay personal vehicle costs because he uses the car while conducting business, and for an owner to consider it the responsibility of the business to provide her with health insurance, and for an owner to carry a family member on the payroll, even though that person only does occasional, part-time work for the company. These represent business expenses which incidentally, also provide benefit to the owner. And as these are items charged to the business at the discretion of the owner, it is an accepted practice to assume a new owner will not incur the same expenses, and to add these costs to the seller's earnings figure.

Memberships in social/business organizations, such as country clubs and fraternal societies, subscriptions to periodicals and internet services, and other discretionary "business" costs might also be considered "add backs" when determining seller's earnings.

An inexperienced broker listing a business and wanting to enter an owner earnings figure that is correct, and can be logically explained, will benefit by carefully questioning the seller on each item "added back."

But there is no substitute for having worked with these expense entries in the past and knowing from experience, how to calculate seller's actual earnings.

Peter Siegel, MBAAbout The Contributor: Peter Siegel, MBA is the Founder & Senior Advisor (ProBuy & ProSell Programs) at BizBen.com (established 1994, 8000+ CA businesses for sale, 500 new & refreshed postings/posts daily) working with buyers, business owners/sellers, business brokers, agents, investors, and advisors). Reach him direct at 866-270-6278 or 888-212-4747 to discuss strategies regarding buying, selling, (or financing a puchase of) California businesses.


Categories: BizBen Blog Contributor, Business Valuation Issues, How To Buy A Business, How To Sell A Business


Comments Regarding This Blog Post

Contributor: Broker Specialist - MFG's, Southern CA

Whilst Depreciation and Amortization are normal addbacks to calculate either SDE or EBITDA, there are some occasions where CapEx can be an ongoing expense of the business. I had a case several years ago with a Concrete Sidewalk Installation company. They used Bobcat machines to break up the old sidewalks, before installing the new. These machines are typically depreciated over a seven year period, but in reality, required replacement every three years. In this case, the machines had to expenses over three years to reach an accurate net income level.


The difference between the "bottom line" and the REAL bottom line can be extraordinary. And, if the seller is not accurate in identifying every legitimate "add-back", he will leave a lot of value unrecognized. The experienced business broker is essential to that accurate analysis of the seller's finances and the proper presentation and explanation of the resulting "Seller's Discretionary Earnings" ("SDE") to prospective buyers. Furthermore, the primary benchmark for beginning the value of small businesses in the great majority of fields is the SDE; that's the basis for comparison to what buyers have paid for similar businesses.


  Helpful Resources To Assist In Selling And Buying California Businesses
Steve Zimmerman: Restaurant Broker Specialist

Steve founded Restaurant Realty in 1996. He has personally sold/leased over 900 restaurants, bars & clubs, & completed over 3000 valuations. The author of "Restaurant Dealmaker - An Insider's Trade Secrets For Buying a Restaurant, Bar or Club" available on Amazon. Reach Steve direct at 415-945-9701.

George Lanza, Business Broker, At Plethora Business Sales

Plethora Businesses, a division of A Premier In Services, Inc., is a Business Intermediary Consulting Firm headquartered in Orange, California. Plethora specializes in the listing and sale of small and medium sized private businesses.

Lee Petsas, Business Broker - Orange, San Diego Counties, Inland Empire

UBI Business Brokers has been successfully selling businesses in Southern California since 1965. Our Agents have over 100 years of experience in selling small to medium size businesses throughout Southern California. We service Orange County, Inland Empire, San Diego. Phone Lee at 714-363-0440.

Jeff Back, Broker: Restaurant Specialist - SF Bay Area

J. Back & Associates Restaurant Real Estate was founded in 1988 as the first bay area real estate company to specialize exclusively in restaurant real estate. I am the past President of Charley Browns restaurants and have been involved in the restaurant business for over 35 years. 925-736-8200.

Prabhjot Randhawa, Broker: SF Bay Area, Northern Central Valley

I'm a Business Advisor at Liberty Business Advisors of San Fransisco. I have over 20 years of experience in all phases of entrepreneurship. During the past 15 years my concentration has been in business of mergers and consulting. I have owned and operated over 10 businesses.

Taj Randhawa, Business Broker Specialist - Gas Stations, Liquor Stores

If you are interested buying or selling a gas station, liquor store feel free to phone me for a consultation. My vast experience & specialization in gas stations & liquor stores helps me in serving my clients with full confidence, trust & sincerity. Serving Central Valley, SF Bay Area. 559-259-4247.

Chuck Post: Laundry Buyer Representation, Consulting, Due Diligence

Chuck Post has 32 years experience in the laundry industry, specializing in assisting laundry buyers (and entrepreneurs) with buying or starting up, building, re-tooling, laundries throughout California. Laundry buyer representation, consulting, due-diligence, lease negotiations, laundry valuations.

Jeff Sacher, Business Broker - North Bay Restaurant, Retail Specialist

Jeff is a leader in business brokering in the North Bay. Since joining Santa Rosa Business And Commercial in 1999 he has assisted Buyers and Sellers in over 200 business sales and acquisitions. Jeff provides other services for his clients as well. Reach Jeff and his team at 707-888-4972.


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